Penggunaan Pendekatan Terapi Bermain dalam Mengenalpasti Isu dan Permasalahan Kanak-Kanak

The Use of Play Therapy Approaches in Identifying Children's Issues and Problems

Authors

  • Nur Shakila Ibharim Fakulti Sastera dan Sains Sosial, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kampar, Perak, Malaysia
  • Nor Aishah Othman Kolej Komuniti Temerloh, Pahang, Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi, Malaysia
  • Nurul Iman Abdul Jalil Fakulti Sastera dan Sains Sosial, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kampar, Perak, Malaysia

Keywords:

Kanak-kanak, terapi bermain, kaunseling, Children, play therapy, counselling

Abstract

Bermain adalah medium semulajadi untuk kanak-kanak meluahkan emosi, tingkah laku dan pengalaman mereka. Kanak-kanak mengalami kesukaran untuk meluahkan isu dan masalah mereka secara lisan kerana keterbatasan dari segi kematangan kognitif dan bahasa. Melalui terapi bermain, kanak-kanak diberi peluang bermain dalam persekitaran terapeutik, selamat dan tidak mengancam dengan bantuan kaunselor yang profesional dalam kaunseling dan kemahiran terapi bermain. Kajian ini membincangkan secara terperinci isu-isu kanak-kanak melalui proses saringan terapi bermain. Tujuan kajian ini dijalankan adalah untuk mengenal pasti isu sosio-emosi dan tingkah laku murid sekolah rendah melalui proses kaunseling menggunakan pendekatan terapi bermain. Seramai 20 orang murid sekolah rendah berumur 12 tahun telah dijadikan sampel untuk kajian ini. Kajian ini merupakan kajian kualitatif yang menggunakan pendekatan terapi bermain untuk melihat perkembangan sosioemosi dan tingkah laku kanak-kanak yang menjalani sesi saringan. Melalui pendekatan terapi bermain, isu dan masalah kanak-kanak dikenal pasti berdasarkan tema permainan yang mereka pilih. Data kajian diperoleh melalui kaedah pemerhatian lisan dan bukan lisan, analisis laporan sesi individu dan analisis gambar dan rakaman video sesi saringan. Hasil kajian mendapati kanak-kanak di sekolah rendah mempunyai isu dan masalah seperti tidak mendapat perhatian ibu bapa, pergaduhan dengan rakan sebaya, keselamatan dan trauma kematian ahli keluarga. Kesan daripada isu dan masalah ini menimbulkan pelbagai konflik, gangguan emosi dan tingkah laku terhadap kanak-kanak. Selain itu, pemilihan permainan yang dipilih oleh kanak-kanak semasa sesi terapi bermain adalah kongruen dengan isu yang dihadapi oleh mereka.

Play is a natural medium for children to express their emotions, behaviors and experiences. Children have difficulty expressing their issues and problems verbally because of limitations in terms of cognitive and language maturity. Through play therapy, children are given the opportunity to play in a therapeutic, safe and non-threatening environment with the help of counselors who are professional in counseling and play therapy skills. This study discussed in detail the issues of children through the play therapy screening process. The purpose of this study was to identify socio-emotional and behavioral issues of primary school children through the counseling process using a play therapy approach. A total of 20 primary school children aged 12 years participated in the study. This study was a qualitative study that utilized a play therapy approach to identify the socioemotional and behavioral development of children undergoing screening sessions. By using the play therapy approach, children’s issues and problems were identified based on the theme of the play activities they chose. Data in this study were obtained through verbal and non-verbal observation methods, analysis of individual session reports, pictures and video recordings of screening sessions. The results of the study found that children in primary schools have issues and problems such as not getting parental attention, fights with peers, safety and trauma of the death of a family member. The effects of these issues and problems led to various conflicts, emotional and behavioral disorders in children. Moreover, the selection of toys and play activities chosen by the children during the play therapy session was congruent with the issues they faced.

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Published

2022-03-30

How to Cite

Nur Shakila Ibharim, Nor Aishah Othman, & Nurul Iman Abdul Jalil. (2022). Penggunaan Pendekatan Terapi Bermain dalam Mengenalpasti Isu dan Permasalahan Kanak-Kanak: The Use of Play Therapy Approaches in Identifying Children’s Issues and Problems. International Journal of Advanced Research in Future Ready Learning and Education, 26(1), 9–24. Retrieved from https://akademiabaru.com/submit/index.php/frle/article/view/4531

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