Energy Profiling of a Plant Factory and Energy Conservation Opportunities
Keywords:MARDI, energy audit, plant factory
Precision farming is one of the important areas to ensure food security by coping with climate change and increase farmer’s productivity. Plant factory is one of the aspects of precision farming and recently sought attention among modern farmers in Malaysia. While ensuring continuous supply of crops throughout the year with increased quality and yield, plant factories consume large amount of energy to maintain their micro-climatic condition. This paper presents the energy consumption profiling of a plant factory, owned by Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) in Serdang, Malaysia. This study is important to establish the status quo of consumption pattern of the plant factory towards reducing the energy consumption. Hence, energy audit was carried at the plant factory for duration of 2 weeks. From the audit it was found that the energy was distributed as follows: Air conditioning system - 51%, LED - 36%, pump - 3% and others - 10%. Finally, suitable energy conservation measures were proposed to reduce the energy intensity of the plant factory.
Teske, Sven, Josche Muth, S. Sawyer, T. Pregger, S. Simon, T. Naegler, M. O'Sullivan et al. Energy [r] evolution-a sustainable world energy outlook. Greenpeace International, EREC and GWEC, 2012.
Pérez-Lombard, Luis, José Ortiz, and Christine Pout. "A review on buildings energy consumption information." Energy and buildings 40, no. 3 (2008): 394-398. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2007.03.007
Department of Communications Energy and Natural Resources. "National Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2014." 2013.
Moghimi, S., F. Azizpour, S. Mat, C. H. Lim, E. Salleh, and K. Sopian. "Building energy index and end-use energy analysis in large-scale hospitals—case study in Malaysia." Energy efficiency 7, no. 2 (2014): 243-256. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12053-013-9221-y
Dakubo, Crescentia Y. Ecosystems and human health: a critical approach to ecohealth research and practice. Springer Science & Business Media, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0206-1
Thomaier, Susanne, Kathrin Specht, Dietrich Henckel, Axel Dierich, Rosemarie Siebert, Ulf B. Freisinger, and Magdalena Sawicka. "Farming in and on urban buildings: Present practice and specific novelties of Zero-Acreage Farming (ZFarming)." Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 30, no. 1 (2015): 43-54. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742170514000143
Healy, Robert G., and John S. Rosenberg. Land use and the states. Routledge, 2013. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315064406
Al-Kodmany, Kheir. "The vertical farm: A review of developments and implications for the vertical city." Buildings 8, no. 2 (2018): 24. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8020024
Kozai, Toyoki. "Plant factory in Japan-current situation and perspectives." Chron. Hortic 53, no. 2 (2013): 8-11.
Kozai, Toyoki, Genhua Niu, and Michiko Takagaki, eds. Plant factory: an indoor vertical farming system for efficient quality food production. Academic press, 2019.
Ismail, Mohd Azmi, and Mohd Sabri Che Jamil. "CFD HVAC Study of Modular Badminton Hall." CFD Letters 12, no. 7 (2020): 90-99. https://doi.org/10.37934/cfdl.12.7.9099
Samsudin, Sheikh Saiful Azam, Abdul Muin Shaari, Kamil Abdullah, and Mohd Faizal Mohideen. "Potential of Utilizing Solar Chimney as an Energy Efficiency Measure in Malaysian Hospitals." CFD Letters 12, no. 4 (2020): 90-99. https://doi.org/10.37934/cfdl.12.4.9099
Kozai, Toyoki. "Smart Plant Factory." (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-1065-2
Yamori, Wataru, Toshiharu Shikanai, and Amane Makino. "Photosystem I cyclic electron flow via chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like complex performs a physiological role for photosynthesis at low light." Scientific reports 5 (2015): 13908. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep15593
Yamori, Wataru, K. O. Noguchi, and Ichiro Terashima. "Temperature acclimation of photosynthesis in spinach leaves: analyses of photosynthetic components and temperature dependencies of photosynthetic partial reactions." Plant, Cell & Environment 28, no. 4 (2005): 536-547. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2004.01299.x
Yamori, Wataru, and Susanne von Caemmerer. "Effect of Rubisco activase deficiency on the temperature response of CO2 assimilation rate and Rubisco activation state: insights from transgenic tobacco with reduced amounts of Rubisco activase." Plant Physiology 151, no. 4 (2009): 2073-2082. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.109.146514