An Analysis of Blood Pressure Waveform using Windkessel Model for Normotensive and Hypertensive Conditions in Carotid Artery
Keywords:carotid artery, pressure waveform, normotensive, hypertensive, Windkessel model, 4-element
Arterial blood pressure waveforms of common carotid artery (CCA) at different physiological conditions are rarely modeled and compared by the previous study. The artery in the cardiovascular system has been known to be analogous with the electrical circuit. Therefore, this study aims to assess and have a full understanding onto the blood pressure waveforms in CCA at different physiological of normotensive and hypertensive conditions invasively. A 4-element Windkessel model is used to obtained the blood pressure from the existing velocity waveforms at three physiological conditions namely as Normal Blood Pressure (NBP), Pre-Hypertension (PH) and Hypertension Stage One (HS1). The results have shown that the blood pressure waveforms are successfully simulated and achieve acceptable agreement with the previous study. The simulated blood pressure waveforms in CCA obtain different patterns which correspond to their velocity waveform. Thus, the augmentation index AI of the pressure waveforms obtained by NBP, PH, and HS1 conditions gave values about 9.77%, 14.94% and 25.17%, respectively. Since these values are acceptable with previous study, the 4-element Windkessel model is reliable in predicting the arterial blood pressure waveform that associate with cardiovascular disease.