Wave energy in the UK: Current scope, challenges and prognostications
Keywords:Wave energy system, onshore, nearshore, offshore, zero energy, coastline houses
This paper reviews the current status, challenges and prognostications of wave energy systems (WES), which have momentous scope in the UK that could deliver the UK’s net zero energy target by 2050. In Britain, there are 43 primary seaside towns around the coast in which 37 are in England that encompass a collective population of 2.9 million and signify around 5.7 % of the population of England as a whole where the zero energy coastline house projects can be initiated with WES. The progress in the development of standalone WES for a vision of zero energy coastline houses is still in its initial stages. This paper exhibited a brief review of the onshore, nearshore and offshore WES technologies, particular focus was made to the scope in the UK. The feasibility and efficiency of WES study imply that the power take off (PTO) efficiency is crucially important as the overall output depends on the optimum energy harness from WES that will improve its competitive prowess with other renewable technologies and further reduce the cost of WES manufacturing. This study implicates one of prognostications that developing marine energy resources in the UK can save 60 metric tons of carbon dioxide by 2025. This study also concluded that WES can pose environmental challenges such as alterations of water column to biota and sea-bed habitats, dredging, noise and vibrations. The prognostication of zero energy coastline houses arises due to the location of the UK, which is one of the major determinants for the future success of wave energy projects, as the UK is located at the long fetch of the Atlantic Ocean and has the wind direction from the west. The available resource to harness wave energy in the UK is around 120 GW.