Synthesis of bi-component ZrO2/Ag nanotube for heavy metal removal


  • Lee Wei Xuan Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Technology and Built Environment, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, 56000, Malaysia.
  • Mohd Fadhil Majnis Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Technology and Built Environment, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, 56000, Malaysia.
  • Syahriza Ismail Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia.
  • Mohd Azam Mohd Adnan Advanced Materials & Manufacturing Research Group (AMMRG), Faculty of Engineering and Life Sciences, University of Selangor, 45600 Bestari Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.



ZrO2/Ag , Nanotubes, Anodization, Photoreduction, Adsorption


This study was conducted to synthesize bi-component ZrO2/Ag nanotubes through anodization and photoreduction methods. The synthesized nanotubes were characterized and adsorption tests were carried out to evaluate its performance in removing heavy metal, lead (II). ZrO2 nanotubes were synthesized by anodizing zirconium foil in an electrolyte composed of glycerol, ammonium fluoride, formamide, and distilled water. The effect of anodizing time and the annealing process on the morphology of synthesized nanotubes were studied. Bi-component ZrO2/Ag nanotubes were prepared through photochemical reduction which silver precursor solution undergoes Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in the presence of the active reducing agent. Larger pore diameter and longer length of synthesized nanotubes were formed at the longer anodizing time and the walls of nanotubes were smoother without annealing. The effect of the initial heavy metal concentration and contact time on the adsorption efficiency of synthesized nanotubes was evaluated using lead (II) as the heavy metal ions. Overall, the percentage removal of lead (II) increased with longer adsorption time and higher initial concentration of the lead (II) ions.


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Graphical Abstract




How to Cite

Lee Wei Xuan, Mohd Fadhil Majnis, Syahriza Ismail, and Mohd Azam Mohd Adnan, “Synthesis of bi-component ZrO2/Ag nanotube for heavy metal removal ”, Prog. Energy Environ., vol. 18, pp. 23–33, Feb. 2022.



Original Article